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(编译贴)轮滑马拉松高手赛前训练指导

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  • TA的每日心情
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    2017-10-10 14:12
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2013-12-3 15:27 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
    本帖最后由 johnxu 于 2017-5-23 11:13 编辑

    这是老烦介绍的前加拿大全国冠军,国家轮滑队教练 Barry Publow写的一个帖子,有兴趣的朋友可以参考,抽时间我把要点编译成中文。这篇文章适合于参加过马来松比赛,希望提高成绩的轮马高手(Barry 给轮马高手定义是90-100分钟内滑完全程轮马)参考,可能不适合滑不下全程的新手。

    Marathon Training and Racing for the Advanced Competitor

    By Barry Publow

    Part 1: Don't make the mistake of trainingthe way runners do

    Not many years ago, few inline races inexcess of 10 kilometers existed. But that's not true anymore. Today, there are dozens of inline marathons, and more long-distance events are popping up every year. While the standard marathon distance is 26.2 miles (42 km), there arealso a few ultra marathon races of 100 km or more.

    But the information age has yet to catch up with the marathon skater. While some web and print resources exist for novice skaters, there's not much out there for advanced skaters. And it is often the advanced skaters who want more. After skating a few marathons, they're nolonger content with simply finishing. They want to go fast and do well.

    Train Smart

    Whenever you think about training, be sureto consider these key variables: volume, intensity, rest, and recovery. These variables determine how your training affects your performance.

    One of the least understood of thevariables is volume, which is the mileage logged by skaters as they prepare for events. The truth is that most skaters log way too many miles while ignoring anaerobic conditioning and recovery.

    Runner You Are Not!

    Inliners often look to marathon running asa guide to skate training. But this often leads to faulty training methods and,ultimately, poor outcomes. The truth is: running a marathon is quite different than skating one. Running a marathon is primarily an individual undertaking and therefore demands a steady pace. Skating a marathon is a pack sport (like roadcycling) that involves a highly varied pace with frequent bursts of speed (dueto breakaways).

    Another difference involves impact levels.The pounding motion of running puts a lot of stress on leg muscles. Marathonrunners condition themselves to handle the stress by running as much as 20 to23 miles a day in the final stage of training. But the pushing motion ofskating involves far less impact. Therefore, skaters don't need this kind ofconditioning.

    Another difference involves duration.Marathon distances are the same for runners and skaters, but skaters go abouttwice as fast. Therefore, they complete marathons in about half the time. Anadvanced skater can finish a marathon in 1:30-1:40 (hours/minutes) while anadvanced runner will take 3-3:20. To prepare for marathons, runners logtraining sessions of 2:30-2:45. By comparison, skaters only need sessions ofabout 1:20.

    So why do many marathon skaters logworkouts of three hours or more? ... I'm baffled by this. But don't get mewrong: Base preparation and logging miles is an important stage in pre-seasontraining. However, once a skater is reasonably fit and can comfortably skatethe distance, the emphasis should shift to speed, which is where many skatersgo astray.

    Part 2: Wanna Race Fast? ... Train Fast
    One of the mostprofound misconceptions in training is the notion that skating lots of mileswill improve your speed. I'm sorry to disappoint all you mega-mileage freaks,but skating a ton of miles won't make you faster.
    That's not to say that it's not good foryou. Piling on the miles will burn calories, improve your cardiovascularperformance, and elevate your relative muscular endurance. But these are NOTthe things that allow you to go fast over a distance of 26 miles! The only wayto race fast is to train fast, and this is where interval and"fartlek" training come into play.

    Most skaters know what interval trainingis. But few understand the science behind it. As a result, they don't know howto adapt it to the events they are preparing for. They do the same intervalswhether they are preparing for a 10K or a marathon. And that's simply wrong.

    Here are some rules to keep in mind:

    No. 1
    If you are fit and can comfortably skatethe distance of your upcoming race, you do not need to increase your weeklymileage by more than about 15 percent.

    No. 2
    In preparing for a race, do a long skateonce a week. This skate should be about 80-110 percent of your race distance.(So, therefore, if you are preparing for a marathon, you should do one skate aweek of 20-28 miles.)

    No. 3
    Twice a week, do hard interval workouts.(These sessions will be the primary mechanism to make you fast!)

    No. 4
    At least once a week, do a"fartlek" workout of roughly half the marathon distance. (Fartlektraining consist of bursts of intense activity alternated with periods of less strenuouseffort.)

    No. 5
    Give yourself two days of rest each week,which only leaves one day of the week unaccounted for. On that day, giveyourself an easy-to-moderate recovery workout.

    No. 6
    Follow this weekly training cycle until7-10 days before your race. At that point, you should "peak andtaper": reduce volume while maintaining intensity.

    Part 3: Marathon Interval Training
    Competing in amarathon is a lot like competing in a 10K. The pace changes often with periodsof relatively relaxed skating punctuated by hard surges as skaters chasebreakaways or go on fliers of their own.
    To be successful under these conditions,you need three things: endurance, the ability to accelerate, and the ability torecover. Endurance will get you to the finish line; but you also need theability to accelerate (so you don't get left behind by the pack) and theability to recover (so you get the rest you need between surges).

    One of the best tools for developing theseskills is interval training.

    Here are two interval workouts especiallydesigned to prepare skaters for marathons:

    Workout No. 1

       warm up: 5 minutes at a constant pace, then 5 minutes progressing torace pace in the final minute.
        4reps of 5 minutes at 80-85 percent effort with 3 minutes active recovery (veryslow skating) between each.
       rest - 8 minutes
        2fartleks (variable speed interval) of 10 minutes each with 2-3 minutes rest.
       rest - 3 minutes
        5100m sprints with 90 seconds rest between them
       cooldown: 10 minutes

    Workout No. 2

       warm up: 5 minutes at a constant pace, then 5 minutes progressing torace pace in the final minute.
        2minutes on at 90 effort, followed immediately by 1 minute off at 60 percenteffort. Repeat 6-8 times (6 ons and 6 offs).
       rest - 5 minutes
        3minutes on at 80-85 percent effort, followed immediately by 1 minute off at 60percent effort. Repeat 4-6 times.
       cooldown: 10 minutes

    Interval training is only one part of marathontraining. Seasonal planning and periodization (doing the right thing at theright time of year) are also important tools.

    Skaters should also gradually andprogressively increase their training load over the weeks and months leading upto a race. And follow this by a systematic reduction in training load in thefinal one or two weeks before for the big day.

    Coming next week: The Importance of theStart!

    文章要点:

    要提高轮马比赛成绩,一定要采用明智的训练方法,注意以下四要素:训练量、训练强度、休息、恢复。 这四点决定了你的训练结果。赛前训练尤其要注意的是训练量(滑的距离),遗憾的是多数人赛前训练超量,而忽视了恢复和增氧调整(aerobic conditioning)。

    轮滑马拉松(轮马)训练切勿采取跑步马拉松(跑马)的训练计划和方法,否则事倍功半。虽然都叫马拉松,但是跑和滑是两种截然不同的运动。

    跑马是个人项目,讲究的是稳定的步幅,而轮马讲究的是集体跟滑,以及由于追队或摆脱对手而频繁变化的步幅和爆发提速。

    另一不同点是跑马强调腿部肌肉的锻炼,赛前训练每天要跑32-48公里,而轮马赛前训练大可不必滑这么长。

    还有一个不同点是耐力问题。滑比跑快大约两倍,轮马高手1小时30分到40分钟就可以完成全程马拉松,而跑马高手却需要3小时到3小时20分钟才能完成。因此,赛前训练每次跑马要练2小时30分钟到2小时45分钟,而轮马滑1小时20分钟就足够了。

    但是,请不要误解,长滑训练不是不必要,能轻松滑下轮马全程是轮马高手赛前训练的基础。而您一旦具备了这个基础,就不要把训练距离看得太重要了,转而要加强速度训练。

    一个流行的错误见解是,超长距离的滑行训练能够提高轮马的速度。错! 大错而特错!异想天开!一次滑得再远,就是滑100公里也提不高你的速度!

    但是,不是说长滑没用。长滑可以消耗卡路里,改善心肺功能,相关部位肌肉得到锻炼,提高耐力。但是,这不能使你提高42公里比赛的成绩。要想在比赛中提高速度,唯一可行的方法就是在训练中提高速度!因此,间训练(interval)和变速训练(fartlek就显得尤为重要。

    大多数轮滑者知道什么是变速训练,但并不一定知道其背后的科学道理,因此,他们不知道如何在大赛前使用这种训练方法。他们用同样的变速滑训练计划准备10公里比赛和42公里比赛,这又是错!错!错!

    赛前训练有以下
    须牢记在心:

    1、如果你能轻松滑下比赛的距离,那么你赛前训练时,每周增加的滑行距离就不要超过15%。
    2、赛前每周一次长滑训练,距离是比赛距离的80-110%。例如,如果你参加42公里全程轮马比赛,那你每周一次的长滑训练就滑32-45公里就足够啦。不用多滑。
    3、每周两次艰苦的间隔(interval)训练,这些训练是提高速度的基本、主要的方法。
    4、每周至少一次变速滑训练(fartlek),滑个半程马拉松,用爆发力的全速滑与恢复性的慢滑交替进行。
    5、每周休息两天,还要留有一天搞些轻松的恢复性训练。
    6、这种每周的训练到赛前7-10天结束。这时你的状态达到了巅峰,可以逐渐减少训练量,但要保持训练强度。   

    间隔训练计划

    一场42公里的轮马比赛与一场10公里的轮马比赛差不太多,都要频繁变换步幅,爆发加速追赶编队或摆脱对手与相对轻松的编队跟滑交替进行。在这种条件下,你需要三种能力:耐力、加速能力、恢复的能力。耐力保证你滑完全程;加速能力使你保持在编队中不被对手甩开;恢复能力使你在加速后跟滑时得到休息。

    间隔训练可以有效提高你的这三种能力。以下是两节专门针对轮马比赛的间隔训练课程:  


    课程1

    • 5分钟匀速滑热身,接着5分钟加速滑,在最后一分钟达到比赛速度。
    • 重复4组以下训练:以80-85%能力5分钟。每组中间恢复3分钟(非常慢的滑)。
    • 休息8分钟。
    • 210分钟的变速滑(间隔变速),中间休息2-3分钟。
    • 5100米冲刺,中间休息90秒。
    • 10分钟的放松。

    课程2
    • 5分钟匀速滑热身,接着5分钟加速滑,在最后一分钟达到比赛速度。
    • 90%的能力快速滑2分钟,立即接着1分钟的减速滑(以60%的能力滑)循环6-8次,(6次加速,6次减速)
    • 休息5分钟。
    • 80-85的能力滑3分钟,立即接着1分钟的减速滑(以60%的能力滑),循环4-6次。
    • 放松10分钟。

    间隔训练只是轮马训练的一部份,适应不同季节的训练计划和优化训练时间(在正确的季节作正确的训练)对于提高成绩都很重要。

    比赛前要逐周逐月循序渐进增加训练量,在比赛前1-2周内要系统地减少训练量,迎接中国北京怀柔2014轮滑马拉松赛(HRIM)这个Big Day的到来!!

    附件是我把间隔训练课程1 的内容做了个换算工具,这样,自己训练时没有人掐表也没问题,自己数圈就可以了。每次训练的距离是17000-22000米。这个工具还包括一个赛前15周具体每天的训练内容的训练日历(中、英文)

    interval2_002.xls

    95.5 KB, 下载次数: 3

    间隔训练和15周训练计划

  • TA的每日心情

    2017-11-21 15:29
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    [LV.6]常住居民

    发表于 2015-10-18 10:19 | 显示全部楼层
    说的太好了。赞一个!
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    2017-11-22 10:07
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    [LV.7]以坛为家

    发表于 2013-12-3 17:12 | 显示全部楼层
    等徐老师的翻译了

    点评

    有时间就翻点,不断更新中。  发表于 2013-12-4 11:23
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    无聊
    2017-11-24 00:05
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    [LV.9]论坛元老

    发表于 2013-12-3 17:16 | 显示全部楼层
    就是,不懂英文。

    点评

    我把要点翻成中文了。  详情 回复 发表于 2013-12-4 13:59
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  • TA的每日心情
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    2016-12-19 14:12
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2013-12-3 18:12 | 显示全部楼层
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    该用户从未签到

    发表于 2013-12-3 18:24 | 显示全部楼层
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  • TA的每日心情
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2013-12-3 19:18 | 显示全部楼层
    顺伟 发表于 2013-12-3 18:12

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    该用户从未签到

    发表于 2013-12-3 21:04 | 显示全部楼层
    坐等徐老师翻译成中文再好好学习

    点评

    我把要点翻成中文了。 这是个粗线条的指导性建议,没有具体的每天训练计划。 我准备赛前买一部网上详细的每天的训练计划,结合训练,请老烦、孙博士等有经验、懂英文的朋友共同编写成一个详细的中文教材。  详情 回复 发表于 2013-12-4 14:06
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    2017-6-30 06:24
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

    发表于 2013-12-4 08:23 | 显示全部楼层
    等待

    点评

    要点翻好了,您去1楼看吧。  发表于 2013-12-4 14:03
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    2017-10-10 14:12
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

     楼主| 发表于 2013-12-4 13:59 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 johnxu 于 2013-12-4 14:03 编辑
    cqmlyb 发表于 2013-12-3 17:16
    就是,不懂英文。

    我把要点翻成中文了。在1楼。
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    2017-10-10 14:12
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    [LV.1]初来乍到

     楼主| 发表于 2013-12-4 14:06 | 显示全部楼层
    本帖最后由 johnxu 于 2013-12-4 14:07 编辑
    pipi282005 发表于 2013-12-3 21:04
    坐等徐老师翻译成中文再好好学习

    我把要点翻成中文了。
    这是个粗线条的指导性建议,没有具体的每天训练计划。
    我准备赛前买一部网上详细的每天的训练计划,结合训练,邀请老烦、孙博士、Strong等有轮马比赛经验、懂英文的朋友,结合我们的训练实践,共同编写成一个详细的中文教材,大家共享。

    点评

    风哥:这编译的教材也只能我们内部使用,不能出版,因为可能涉及版权问题。  发表于 2013-12-9 10:34
    期待徐老师编写的中文教材,这可是填补国内轮滑马拉松技术教材的空白。  发表于 2013-12-9 09:57
    等你们的教材出来了,我也照教材练练  发表于 2013-12-4 22:43
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